Diabetes | Definition of Diabetes Mellitus | Definition of Diabetes Insipidus
What is Diabetes?
Diabetes is a dangerous disease caused by a deficiency of a hormone called insulin. This disease results in heart problems, eye problems, kidney disease, nerve damage, paralysis, etc. In many cases, the disease causes the blood to stop flowing in many parts of the body. Even that part can be surgically removed. For all these reasons, diabetes is called Silent killer.
Types of diabetes
There are two main types of diabetes, namely- A. Diabetes Mellitus, B. Diabetes Insipidus.
A. What is Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic problem of carbohydrates. Diabetes mellitus is caused by a deficiency of a hormone called insulin secreted by the beta cells of the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. In the absence of insulin, blood sugar levels cannot be regulated properly. As a result, the amount of sugar increases. Diabetes mellitus is also called high blood sugar.
Types of Diabetes Mellitus :
1. Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or IDDM :
Outbreaks appear to be exacerbated during childhood. Due to any type of injury or infection of the beta cells of the pancreas, insulin secretion is disrupted or insulin is not produced at all. This type of diabetes usually starts at the age of 14. That is why it is also called juvenile diabetes mellitus.
2. Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus or NIDDM :
This type of diabetes is more common in obese people over the age of 30. In this case, the body makes insulin, but it can not be used properly. Or a very small amount of insulin is secreted. About 85-90% of diabetics suffer from this type of diabetes.
3. Malnutrition Related Diabetes Mellitus or MRDM :
This type of diabetes is mainly due to malnutrition. People from children to adults suffer from this type of diabetes as a result of malnutrition.
4. Gestational Diabetes Mellitus :
Insulin cannot work properly in many women’s bodies during pregnancy. As a result, the metabolism of sugar is disrupted and pregnant women get diabetes.
B. What is Diabetes Insipidus?
Diabetes insipidus is a type of hereditary disease. The effect of anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) secreted from the back of the pituitary gland leads to reabsorption of water in the renal tubules of the nephron. As a result, the amount of water in the urine decreases and the urine becomes thicker. But if ADH is not secreted properly, reabsorption of water from the nephron’s distal conjunctiva and the collecting duct cannot occur. As a result, a lot of water is excreted from the body through urine. This condition is called diabetes insipidus.
Causes of Diabetes Mellitus :
Diabetes mellitus has many causes. –
1. Eating habits :
Obesity and obesity means that people who overeat and those who have high levels of sweet and simple foods on their diet are more likely to develop diabetes.
2. Stress :
Anxiety and worry are on the rise in order to keep pace with the fast pace of life, which is one of the major causes of diabetes.
3. Lack of hard work :
As people become more dependent on machinery, the rate of physical exertion is greatly reduced, which is one of the causes of diabetes.
4. Genealogy :
In families where both parents have diabetes, their children are more likely to develop diabetes. However, if one of the parents in the family is diabetic, their children are relatively less likely to develop diabetes.
5. Bacterial Infections :
Bacterial infections in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans destroy insulin-secreting beta cells. This disrupts insulin production and increases blood glucose levels. Gradually diabetes mellitus occurs.
Symptoms of Diabetes Mellitus :
The symptoms of diabetes mellitus are-
a. Decreased appetite, b. Annoyance and fatigue, c. Numbness of hands and feet, d. Sudden loss of body weight, e. Excessive thirst, f. Increased levels of glucose in the urine, etc.
Problems Related to Diabetes Mellitus :
If you have high blood sugar for a long time, various diseases of the body can take up residence.-
1. Heart disease :
Prolonged high blood glucose levels increase blood triglyceride and cholesterol levels, increasing the risk of heart disease.
2. Paralysis :
If you have high blood sugar for a long time, many nerves do not reach the strength properly, then the problem of paralysis occurs.
3. Eye diseases :
Problems with the veins of the eyes due to excess sugar. Bleeding occurs in the vitreous humor of the eye. This increases the pressure on the eyes and reduces vision. Excess sugar can lead to diabetic retinopathy, cataracts and glaucoma.
4. Kidney disease :
Prolonged diabetes damages the kidneys, leading to renal failure. The kidneys lose their identity due to high sugar levels.
5. Nerve disease :
Sugar causes nerve problems. As a result of having too much sugar, the nerves cannot function properly. This is the origin of peripheral neuritis. As a result, the automatic functioning of the nerves is severely hampered.
Problems Related to Diabetes Insipidus :
Problems that occur when diabetes insipidus is present in the body for a long time are-
1. Diabetic Neuropathy :
If you suffer from diabetes for a long time, it affects different parts of the body. The nerves on the outside of the body do not work properly. That condition is called diabetic neuropathy.
2. Nephropathy and uremia :
If you suffer from diabetes for a long time, the function of the kidneys is disturbed. Metabolic wastes from the body cannot be excreted in the blood normally. This type of kidney disease is called nephropathy. Due to the inability of the kidneys to function properly, the metabolic wastes accumulate in the blood and cause poisoning. This abnormality of the blood is called uremia. Uremia causes many deaths.
3. Retinopathy :
If you suffer from diabetes for a long time, it affects the retina of the eye. The retina of the retina is destroyed. Retina reflexes cannot be formed. As a result, the affected person gradually loses sight. This condition is called diabetic retinopathy.